Evaluation of a VR language learning environment: Effect of feedback on learners’ flow state

James York, Meiji University
Hirotaka Takuma, Takuya Yoshino & Hiroshi Nakayama, Tokyo Denki University.


Language learning motivation may be fostered by inducing a “flow state” in learners. This is characterised by a state of deep immersion in an activity, such as feeling enjoyment and satisfaction in the activity itself. In this study, the research focus is the potential of virtual reality (VR) to produce learners’ flow state. Investigations relate to whether adding audiovisual feedback to a pairwork speaking activity can promote flow. A pairwork spot-the-difference activity that utilized the playful and interactive affordances of VR was created. Two versions of the environment were created: one with audiovisual feedback, and the other without. 22 participants, separated into two groups experienced the VR environment with (n = 12 ) and without feedback (n = 10). A questionnaire with 10 measures was used to determine whether the VR environments facilitated flow (based on Cho, 2018). Results of the questionnaire suggested that there was no significant difference in the flow state of the participants with and without feedback. However, examination of individual measures revealed significant differences in mean scores for two measures: both “enjoyment” and “satisfaction” were higher in the group that experienced the VR environment with feedback, suggesting that feedback in VR may promote motivation. However, due to the low number of participants in this study, the generalization of results is difficult.

Download this article here.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.37546/JALTSIG.CALL.PCP2022-05